9.0 on the Mohs scale.
Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, India, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Tanzania, Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Malagasy Republic, Malawi, Pakistan, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), United States (Montana, North Carolina).
The golden color of sapphire ranges from a yellow to orange. Very orange or pinkish orange sapphires are called orange sapphire and padparadscha respectively.
Golden sapphire is always heat treated to produce, intensify or lighten color and/or improve color uniformity and appearance. Golden sapphire is occasionally irradiated to provide temporary intense yellow or orange color.
More information on gemstone enhancements.
Golden Sapphire is a member of the Sapphire gemstone family.
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